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Air Gap

The distance between the north and south poles of a magnetic circuit. In conducting pull tests this is the distance between the working surface of the magnet and the testing apparatus.


(oriented) A material that has a preferred direction of magnetic orientation which produces superior magnetic characteristics through a particular axis.

Coercive Force, Hc

The intensity of a magnetic field required to reduce to zero the residual magnetism of a substance.

Curie Temperature

The temperature that a magnetic substance loses its magnetic properties.

Demagnetizing Force

A magnetized force applied in a direction that reduces the field in a magnetized material.


Another term for the magnetic field.


The unit of magnetic induction or magnetic flux density used to measure magnetic field strength (lines of magnetic flux per square centimeter).


An instrument used to measure the intensity of a magnetic field.


Indicates the change in magnetic strength between points measured at different distances perpendicular to the magnetic field.

Intrinsic Coercive Force, Hci

Measurement of magnetic material's inherent ability to resist self demagnetization.


(non-oriented) A material with no preferred direction of orientation resulting in the same magnetic characteristics through any axis.


A material that has the property, either natural or induced, of attracting iron or steel.

Magnetic Field

The space around a magnet in which the magnetic force can be detected.

Magnetic Flux

The total magnetic induction across or through a specified area.

Magnetic Induction, B

The production of magnetic properties in a magnetizable substance when placed in a magnetic field.

Magnetic Lines of Force

A series of invisible lines passing from one pole to another of a magnet, which taken together form the magnetic field.

Magnetic Orientation

Determines the magnetic polarity and position of one magnet pole to the other.

Magnetic Saturation

The maximum amount of magnetic energy that can be absorbed by a magnetic substance.

Maximum Energy Product, (BH)max

The point on the BH curve where the product of B and H is a maximum and the required volume of magnet material required to project a given energy into its surroundings is a minimum. Measured in MGOe.

Maximum Operating Temperature

The maximum temperature a magnet can withstand without significant long range instability or structural changes.


Mega Gauss Oersted.

North Pole

The pole of a magnet that when freely suspended would point to the north magnetic pole of the earth.


The unit of magnetic intensity in the cgs (centimeter-gram-second) system that describes magnetic force.

Pole Pieces

Steel plates attached to the north and south poles of a magnet which direct the lines of flux and can control the gradient of the magnetic field.

Pull Test

A test of holding value or breakaway force and reach out, usually conducted with a flat ferrous plate or ferrous sphere and a spring scale.

Reach Out

The distance in which a magnetic field will extend from the magnet source.

Residual Magnetism

Small amounts of magnetism that remain in a material after being exposed to magnetic force.

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